BG counters 32: BA-10, BA 11D, & BAI-M & BA-3

Vinnie

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39. BA-10: This is a BA-6 (Russian Vehicle Note 39) which is a later production model where a new chassis was used, and instead of out-right adding more armour, the designers actually reduced it, whilst at the same time sloping it, thus giving better effective protection. It mounted the turret of an experimental light tank that never went into production.
It was the most produced Soviet pre-1941 Armoured car with some 3311 built. Although produced in large numbers it was rarely seen after 1943 with its role having been taken by various light tanks.
Significantly, it was used by various enemy powers after being captured both on the Eastern Front and in the Far East where the Manchuko puppet government used them after capturing them during the battles of Khalkin Gol. some fought alongside the ROA and the defenders during the Prague uprising90289029
 

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39a BA-11D:
Following the success of the BA-10 (Russian Vehicle Note 39, the Soviets decided to upgrade the vehicle further. They were going to use a ZiS-5 army truck, which was better suited to rougher terrain than the GAZ-AAA as used on the BA-10. When the final prototype of the BA-11 was developed and tested, small numbers were produced as a pre-series, just before mass production was due to start. As a result of the outbreak of the war, the few produced were to be the only ones ever built, and even despite various upgrades being designed, the BA-11 project was cancelled. Design Process
In the 1930s, Soviet automobile engineers began experimenting with the ZiS-5 truck. One of these experiments meant that the vehicle was shortened, and it was given an improved engine, lower frame, and additional set of rear wheels. Due to this successful experiment, in the winter of 1938, engineers were given the go-ahead to create an armoured car based on a very similar chassis, and this process started in the first few days of 1939. At the Izhora Factory, under the direction of N. Baranov, a very sophisticated prototype was produced on the basis of a ZiS-6 truck (petrol engine). It was sent for factory trials shortly after. It was intended to test it in the Winter War along with other prototype vehicles, such as the KV-1, SMK, and T-46. However, the war ended before the BA-11 prototype could be sent out.
After some testing of the vehicle near Moscow, a new prototype was made, reportedly based on the ZiS-34 (a 6×4 version of the ZiS-6 designed in 1940), known as the BA-11D. 16 production model vehicles were produced. There was an intention to mass-produce the vehicle, but the Izhora Factory was cut off from almost all supplies during the Siege of Leningrad, and there was no feasible way for the project to continue with such limited resources.
The BA-11D had armour that was sloped to a greater degree than the BA-10, and the armour was thicker, in order to give better protection, such as the engine compartment hatches being changed. It featured the same 45 mm (1.77 in) gun, but had its ammo capacity increased to 144 rounds. It also featured the same DT machine guns with 3057 rounds each. It was also given bulletproof tires as a minor upgrade.
There were some attempts in early 1940 to mount new diesel engines to the BA-11D, but none of these proved successful, and actually made the vehicle slower. Some other chassis were tried out, such as a 6×6 ZiS-36 in autumn 1940, but the outbreak of the war put a stop to this.
The BA-11Ds that were produced were used in the defense of Leningrad. Due to its better armour, similar firepower and substantially better mobility, it was arguably better than the early T-26 models (Russian Vehicle Note 6) that were in service near Leningrad, and they tended to fare better in combat. On road, the BA-11D achieved double the speed of the T-26. The BA-11D tended to engage enemy armoured cars, and gun emplacements. It was actually more fiercely armed than enemy heavy armoured cars, but the chassis and engine were simply not good enough to provide the required speed and mobility for the demands of the war, even despite good performance relative to other heavy armoured cars.
See also Russian Vehicle Notes
 

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39b BAI-M & BA-3:
The Izhora plant Design Bureau led by N. I. Dyrenkov launched, in early 1932, at its own initiative, a study for a new model designated BAI (BroneAvtomobil Izhorskij). This took place after some experience was gathered on the "Ford Timken" D-13 armoured car chassis. This vehicle featured a 6×4 chassis developed from a marriage between a rear Timken truck axle with a short Ford A chassis. In parallel, the BA-27M (Russian Vehicle Note 38b) was also developed. In the end, this model was the starting point of the BA series of heavy armoured cars, which will encompass, until 1941, the BAI, BAI-M, BA-3, BA-6 (Russian Vehicle Note 39) and BA-10 (Russian Vehicle Note 39a).
The BAI had a welded body assembled from 4-8 mm (0.16-0.31 in) thick armour plates attached in 10 points to the chassis. The rear part of the Ford Timken original chassis was shortened by 400 mm (15.7 in), the bureau managing to provide a more compact design compared to the previous D-13. The BAI towered 3.86 m (12.6 ft) above the ground. The fighting compartment floor was lower than the front part of the vehicle. This solution helped reduce the overall height and subsequently applied to all the Soviet medium armoured vehicles which were built in the 1930s. The BAI had three doors, two on the sides and one at the stern. The driver had a hinged armoured hatch with viewing slot in the front hull, and others were located in the side doors. Above the driver and hull-gunner (co-driver), another hatch was placed, used for ventilation and air surveillance. The commander was located in the small turret, sitting on a suspended canvas belt. He had a set of three hinged armoured covers with slits in the turret, with armour flaps.
The armament consisted of a 37 mm (1.47 in) Hotchkiss (PS-1) QF light gun and and 7.62 mm (0.3 in) DT machine gun installed in the frontal slope of the turret. Another DT, installed in a ball mount, was manned by the co-driver in the front hull. Ammunition consisted of 34 gun rounds stored in canvas pockets inside the turret and 3024 cartridges stored in 48 discs, packed in racks, installed on the side walls of the fighting compartment, while others and tooling took place in additional stores under the floor. The BAI had a Ford 40 hp engine with a crash gearbox and dual drive. The motor block was protected by an armoured hood with shutters for radiator ventilation. The chassis frame was reinforced by a cross bar under the front suspension.
The spare wheels, mounted after the front wheels, could rotate freely. This allowed them to play the role of additional rollers on soft ground. To further improve all-terrain performance, the BAI’s tires could be equipped with snow tracks on the rear axles, the operation being done in 8-10 minutes by two crew members. They were stored on the rear mudguard when not in use. This system was so successful that it became a Red Army standard for armoured cars.
In the summer of 1938, the armour repair base number 6 in Bryansk fitted a BAI body on the new GAZ-AAA chassis. The new 1937 frame had the rear shortened by 300 mm (11.8 in). The front axle was strengthened and the course amplified for better off-road performances, while the roadwheel tires were replaced with bulletproof ones. The electrical and other mechanical parts also came from the GAZ-AAA, and an additional 18 liter fuel tank was added. Although shorter, the BAI-M was heavier (4680 kg vs 3860 kg). Top-speed values remained unchanged, whereas the range was doubled (286 km vs 140 km). The BAI-M was first tested at the NIBT range in January-March 1939, on a 3120 km (1940 mi) course, including 33 km (20 mi) on snow, and entered service in October 1939. By the summer of 1940, the upgrade of the entire fleet had been completed. Most vehicles were sent sent to the Far East, remaining there until 1945 as part of the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern military districts, facing Japan, a quiet affectation. The remainder were mostly destroyed in the summer of 1941, and at least one was captured and reused by the Germans.
The BA-3 was an improved model, following an 1932 army specification asking for a model equipped with the T-26 turret, and its high velocity 45 mm (1.77 in) 20K gun (60 rounds), allowing excellent antitank capabilities. The armament was completed by a coaxial DT machine-gun and another in the front compartment co-driver ballmount. The Izhora plant chose to radically improve the BAI design, lengthening the rear part of the hull by 50 cm (1.64 ft) to cope with the extra top-weight of the new T-26 turret. The ring was also reinforced, as was the entire rear compartment.
The riveted armour was also thickened and the engine compartment received extra exhaust vents, as the GAZ engine proved prone to overheating. It was also remarkable that it was tested and equipped with spare chained tracks for its rear wheels, for a quick conversion into a half-track.
Cross-country speed proved less than 35 km/h (21.7 mph) and the engine also overheated badly, imposing better cooling and a reinforced front suspension, which were added on the next series. Production was part of the 1st Five Year Plan and was partly assumed by Vyksunskij (Gorki Works), the first series based on the US-based Ford-Timken truck chassis converted into a 6×4, and later production vehicles received a new Russian-built GAZ AAA chassis. When the production ended in 1935, 180 have been delivered to the Red Army.
The BA-3 Zhd was a "kit" especially designed for railways in 1936, which saw very limited production with the improved BA-6ZD. This consisted in hydraulic jacks mounted on the front and rear to lift it in position, and six adapted metal wheels to be installed over the tires. This operation was performed in just 30 minutes.
When the war broke out in 1939, the 7th, 8th, and 9th Brigades, half equipped with BA-3/6s, were sent to the Far Eastern border with Japanese-controlled Northern China. The dry and flat steppe helped these heavy armoured cars and their 47 mm (1.77 in) gun gave excellent results against Japanese tanks at Khalkin Gol. However, they proved vulnerable even to the Japanese 13 mm (0.51 in) heavy machine-guns. Some were delivered to the 6th and 8th Armored Cavalry Battalions of the Mongolian Revolutionary People’s Army, which also took part in various operations in this sector against the Japanese.
Others took part in the invasion of Poland in September. Later on they took part in the "Winter war" campaign against Finland, showing good mobility in the snow with their "half-track kits". Many were easily destroyed by Finnish antitank rifles and other lighter expedients, and a dozen were captured. They were later pressed in service as the BAF-A (BA-3) and BAF-B (BA-6) (Finnish Vehicle Note 21a) and fought on until late 1944. The Russian models were still frontline during the summer of 1941.
However, like the BA-10, they were gradually phased out during the Great Patriotic War in favor of the new generation of mass-produced light scout tanks, like the T-60/T-70. The BA-6 was also exported to Turkey. Some sources speak of 60 delivered in 1939.
 
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